//Public documents

The desing of Triple Function Substations in combination with RELaTED technologies

Ultra-Low temperature district heating introduces multiple benefits at network level, as the reduction of heat losses and the improvement of heat generation efficiency. ULTDH also facilitates the integration of low temperatures renewable energy sources and waste heat into the district heating network. Renewable heat sources as solar thermal and heat pumps can be coupled to the district heating network and the buildings through specially designed district heating substations. Some images of the Microbooster and BILTST demonstration in Taastrup, Denmark. During the development of the RELaTED project, several Triple Function Substations (3FS) have been evaluated and designed. Those were investigated in different versions, connection schemes configurations and operating modes depending on the district heating characteristics, the building types and [...]

2021-02-18T12:59:29+00:00February 18th, 2021|Public documents|

Metering and billing of consumption in ultra-low temperature district heating systems

In general, metering of district heating consumption in ultra-low temperature district heating (ULT DH) systems is not different from traditional district heating. However, when electricity is used to boost DHW temperature, this share of the DHW production is no longer metered by the district heating company, or must be metered separately by an additional electricity meter. This information has been extracted from the section 5 of the document D.2.2. Interconnection schemes for consumer installations. DOWNLOAD THIS DOCUMENT HERE >> Figure 3: principle of metering in ULT DH systems with electric booster In this case, there might be different ways to bill the consumer. One option is that the consumer is just billed the district heating consumption with usual [...]

2020-06-01T16:56:21+00:00February 27th, 2020|Public documents, Publications|

Machine Learning as a solution tool for district heating

In recent years, Machine Learning has become one of the most used techniques when modelling relationships between different parameters. Inspired by the successful integration of Machine Learning in many other areas, it is beginning to draw attention in the district heating sector as well. The application of Machine Learning in the context of district heating has an obvious potential as a component of tomorrows heating networks. Machine learning (ML) is a fast-developing tool that allows you to handle large and complex systems with many parameters and data, with different desires for efficiency. It is a branch of artificial intelligence, and defined by Computer Scientist and machine learning pioneer Tom M. Mitchell in relation to his book Machine Learning (1997) [2] [...]

2020-02-05T11:01:34+00:00February 5th, 2020|Public documents, Publications|

Energy flexibility and District Heating Control

The activities carried out under the RELaTED project address the need for increased energy efficiency and new management strategies in relation to ULT DH. Installing smart meters allows for increased insight into the conditions of networks and installations and by the use of machine learning to utilize these data in new algorithms and tools. RELaTED report 2.4, which is part of a set of reports that define the system architecture of the RELaTED concept, describes new possibilities concerning measurement and control of ULT DH and other DH systems with high energy flexibility. RELaTED task 2.4 aims at developing a framework for advanced control procedures for managing and optimizing ULT DH networks based on energy consumers equipped with smart meters and [...]

2019-11-15T10:34:12+00:00October 2nd, 2019|Public documents, Publications|

Development schemes for new district heating developments

How can low temperature concepts be applied in new urban developments? The RELaTED Task 2.5 describes a set of guidelines that are, in general terms, based on best practices as most new urban development areas are different in relation to visions, DH network topology, temperature levels, buildings installations, tariff structure, management etc. […]

2019-06-20T13:48:49+00:00June 20th, 2019|Public documents, Publications|

Prevention of legionella: actions to find safe domestic hot water solutions in relation to district heating

Use of low and ultra-low DH temperatures, that proposes RELaTED project, results in an increase of the energy efficiency of the heating system. However, the low temperatures in general also increase the risk of Legionella. This emphasizes the need of finding safe Legionella solutions for the domestic hot water (DHW) production from district heating (DH). Focus has been on both large installations in multi-family houses and commercial buildings often using a storage tank for hot water, and for smaller installations in one-family houses or in each flat in newer multi-storey houses with instantaneous heating by a heat exchanger. A survey of various challenges and solutions can be found in the IEA Guidebook “Future Low Temperature District Heating Design Guidebook” from [...]

2019-09-26T12:19:47+00:00June 6th, 2019|Public documents, Publications|

Definitions of ultra-low temperature district heating

District heating companies, equipment manufacturers, consultants and researchers have discussed definitions of district heating and cooling in general, and also ultra-low temperature district heating. This inform explains the different definitions and most used terms to give the reader not familiar with district heating the background of this system and the technology options. DOWNLOAD THIS DOCUMENT >> Photo by Pixabay from Pexels In the report "Benchmark for performance levels" (C. H. Christiansen, N. Winther, Ecoheat Cities WP2-report, 2012), the following indicative temperature levels and definitions were specified: DH High Temperature System (HT), 100/50 °C DH Low Temperature System (LT), 80/40 °C DH Very Low Temperature System (VLT), 60/30 °C DH Ultra Low Temperature System (ULT), 45/30 °C District cooling [...]

2019-05-02T11:22:13+00:00May 2nd, 2019|Public documents, Publications|

Interconnection schemes for consumer installations in relation to legionella bacteria prevention

This document elucidates specific problems and solutions for consumer connections in relation to legionella bacteria prevention and treatment, metering and billing options and control opportunities. Moreover, sketches that could be used as specific solutions for consumer interconnection schemes for three of the demonstration sites on public networks in the project are presented. DOWNLOAD THIS DOCUMENT >> The report is a continuation of the report “Low temperature concepts” and  is part of a set of reports that define the system architecture of the RELaTED concept. Distribution of Legionnaries’ disease cases per 100.000 population in the EU/EEA countries, 2016. Source: Surveillance report Legionnaires’ disease. In RELaTED Task 2.2 the design and control challenges for connections for ULT DH consumers are [...]

2019-03-15T12:35:41+00:00March 15th, 2019|Public documents, Publications|

Low temperature district heating concepts

DH systems were designed many decades ago. In most cases, they are designed and operated to distribute heat at about 80 °C to consumers. RELaTED pursues the development of DH networks with service temperature levels as low as 40-50 ºC. “D.2.1 Low temperature concepts” deliverable reports on the RELaTED low temperature concepts, considering potentialities and limitations imposed by distributed energy sources (DER), low temperature (LT) and ultra-low temperature (ULT) distribution systems as well as heat and domestic hot water demand. DOWNLOAD THIS DOCUMENT >> Operational small corporate DH network in Iurreta (Basque Country, Spain). In RELaTED Task 2.1 the low temperature district heating concept is being defined, and some of the possibilities for integrating distributed energy recourses into [...]

2019-02-28T13:31:08+00:00February 28th, 2019|Public documents, Publications|